Critical Naturalism: Replies to the Critics of the Manifesto


  • Federica Gregoratto St. Gallen University
  • Heikki Ikäheimo University of New South Wales
  • Emmanuel Renault University of Paris-Nanterre
  • Arvi Särkelä University of Lucerne
  • Italo Testa University of Parma



Critical naturalism, Critical Naturalism Manifesto, Utopia, Domination, Power, Affect, First nature, Second nature, Critical Theory, Freedom


In this paper, we comment and discuss the fifteen replies that interpret, solicit, problematize, and further develop our Critical Naturalism: A Manifesto (Krisis 42(1)), that have been published in Krisis 43(1). In the paper, we address four overarching topics that we see emerging from the replies: Histories and traditions of criticial naturalism; the relation between theory and praxis; the question of what is critical about critical naturalism; and finally the question of utopia. Additionally, we discuss three general types of attitudes that our critics take to the Manifesto

Author Biographies

Federica Gregoratto, St. Gallen University

Federica Gregoratto is currently guest professor in social philosophy at the Freie Universität Berlin. She has published in English, German, French and Italian on a variety of topics in social and political philosophy, such as the philosophy of love and sex, critical theory (including the monograph on Habermas: Il doppio volto della comunicazione, Mimesis, 2013), pragmatism, recognition and power theories, debt-guilt debates, gender and intersectionalist studies. She is now working on a book about erotic love as a social space of power, freedom and transformation.

Heikki Ikäheimo, University of New South Wales

Heikki Ikäheimo is Senior Lecturer at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. His research areas include Hegel, German idealism, theories of recognition, intersubjectivity, subjectivity, personhood, the human life-form, critical social philosophy. He published the monograph Anerkennung (De Gruyter 2014), the edited collections Recognition and Social Ontology (Brill 2011) and Recognition and Ambivalence (Columbia University Press 2021), as well as Handbuch (Springer 2021). His next monograph Recognition and the Human Life-form is forthcoming by Routledge in 2022.

Emmanuel Renault, University of Paris-Nanterre

Emmanuel Renault is professor of philosophy at University of Paris-Nanterre. His research interests include Hegel, Marx, The Frankfurt School, Pragmatism, philosophy of nature, the theory of recognition and of work. His books in English include: The Experience of Injustice (Columbia University Press, 2019),  Marx and Critical Theory (Brill, 2018), Social Suffering: Sociology, Psychology, Politics (2017) and The Return of Work in Critical Theory: Self, Society, Politics (Columbia, 2018, with C. Dejours, J.-P. Deranty and N. Smith).

Arvi Särkelä, University of Lucerne

Arvi Särkelä is Lecturer at the University of Lucerne and Postdoctoral Researcher at ETH Zürich. His research interest include Spinoza, Hegel, Emerson, Nietzsche, Dewey, Wittgenstein, Adorno, social philosophy, philosophy of culture and methodology of the history of philosophy. He has published the monograph Immanente Kritik und soziales Leben (Klostermann 2018), co-edited (with Axel Honneth) the German Edition of Dewey's Lectures in China (Sozialphilosophie, Suhrkamp 2019) and co-edited (with Martin Hartmann) the volume Naturalism and Social Philosophy (Rowman & Littlefield 2022).

Italo Testa, University of Parma

Italo Testa is Associate Professor at the University of Parma. His research interests include German Classical Philosophy, Critical Theory, Pragmatism, Embodied Cognition, Social Ontology, theories of recognition, habit, and second nature. Among his books: La natura del riconoscimento (Mimesis, 2010), and the edited collections I that is We, and We that is I (Brill, 2016), Habits. Pragmatist Approaches from Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Social Theory (Cambridge University Press, 2021).




How to Cite

Gregoratto, Federica, Heikki Ikäheimo, Emmanuel Renault, Arvi Särkelä, and Italo Testa. 2024. “Critical Naturalism: Replies to the Critics of the Manifesto”. Krisis | Journal for Contemporary Philosophy 44 (1):125-35.